Technology Overview
Cyclic Dinucleotides
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GVAX is portfolio of irradiated tumor cell lines that have been engineered to recruit immune cells by expressing GM-CSF, the most potent immune cell recruitment factor. GVAX vaccines are well suited for combination therapy because (a) they present numerous antigens to the immune system, thereby enabling a broad-based immune response and (b) have a well-established, favorable safety profile demonstrated in multiple clinical trials.
The combination of GVAX Pancreas and the immune checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab (Yervoy® from Bristol-Myers Squibb) was more effective than ipilimumab alone in a 30 patient study: mOS was 3.6 vs. 5.7 months (p=0.072; HR=0.51) (J Immunother. 36(7), 382-389).  In a study of GVAX Prostate and ipilimumab in 28 patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, 50% or greater declines in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were seen from baseline in seven patients (25%) (Lancet Oncol. 13(5), 509-517).   
In addition, Aduro has demonstrated that co-formulation of CDNs with GVAX, termed STINGVAX, results in superior anti-tumor efficacy in pre-clinical cancer models compared to GVAX alone.

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